Disaster risk management (DRM) is a set of processes to lessen the impacts of disasters on society. This process involves the development of policies, strategies and capacities, among other activities, to assess, prepare for and reduce disaster risks, before disaster strikes. This Primer is designed to promote a framework for matching available technology with DRM processes. It provides examples of a range of information and communication technology (ICT) applications already implemented in Asia and the Pacific as well as the rest of the world. These examples will be presented as case studies on how ICTs are being used in disaster mitigation, preparedness, response and relief, as well as recovery and reconstruction.
For the purpose of this Primer, ICT is defined as information-handling tools—a varied set of goods, applications and services that are used to produce, store, process, distribute and exchange information. ICTs have the potential to reduce the possibility of death and economic disruption by improving access to the information that can help make better choices; this is true for all individuals, organizations, localities, countries, and economic sectors, no matter what hazard is faced. For example, volcanoes can be monitored for emissions of various materials or changes in their shapes that could indicate imminent eruptions.
Rivers are measured for water volume and speed as part of flood modelling. Measurements can be relayed to far-off computing centres or published on the web in real-time hazard monitoring systems, to be analysed using software tools. This can lead to the early detection of the occurrence of hazards, as well to the improved prediction or estimation of the frequency and severity of hazards.
||Introduction to Disaster Risk Management
||The Need for ICTs in Disaster Risk Management
||ICT for Disaster Mitigation
||ICT for Disaster Preparedness
||ICT Applications for Green Growth and Sustainable Development
The primer aims to:
- Introduce the basic concepts of ICT and their role and application in DRM;
- Introduce the process and components of DRM;
- Foster a better understanding of how ICTs can be applied effectively in DRM; and
- Provide case studies of ICT applications in all components of DRM.
After reading this Primer, students will be equipped with a good understanding of different components in DRM, and exposed to the role of ICT and its wide-ranging potential application in DRM. Students will be able to utilize this as a context and potential in whatever field or profession they decide to pursue.
Specifically, this Primer provides students with:
- A framework to understand the processes and the components of DRM.
- A better understanding of the advantages as well as challenges and issues of using ICT for DRM; and
- Broad knowledge and skills to help in the effective planning, development and implementation of relevant ICT applications.